Dr Andrew Seit

Dr Andrew Seit

★★★★★“ Make Technology do what technologies are designed for and liberate TIME for us to have "the LIFE" the way it's meant to be.” ★★★★★

139 Articles Written
Bank Reconciliation Techniques and Tools

Bank Reconciliation Techniques and Tools

Keeping track of bank accounts is an essential part of running any business. Bank reconciliation techniques and tools can ...

Cash Flow Forecasting Models and Techniques

Cash Flow Forecasting Models and Techniques

Cash flow forecasting is an essential part of any successful business. Without an accurate forecast of cash inflows and...

Debt Refinancing: A Comprehensive Overview

Debt Refinancing: A Comprehensive Overview

Debt refinancing is a crucial step in keeping your finances in order and ensuring that your debt load is manageable. For...

An Introduction to Monte Carlo Simulation

An Introduction to Monte Carlo Simulation

Monte Carlo simulation is a powerful tool that can be used to analyze complex financial models and make informed...

Forecasting Volatility: Understanding Market Risk Management

Forecasting Volatility: Understanding Market Risk Management

In the ever-changing world of global finance, volatility forecasting is one of the most important tools in risk...

Understanding Treasury Policies

Understanding Treasury Policies

Understanding treasury policies can be a daunting task. With the ever-changing economic climate and the need to stay...

Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) Calculation Models Explained

Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) Calculation Models Explained

Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) is a critical part of treasury operations. FTP models are used to determine the cost of...

Inventory Forecasting Models and Tools

Inventory Forecasting Models and Tools

Inventory forecasting is a critical part of any business's success. It is essential for managing working capital,...

Market Risk Management Optimization: Exploring Strategies for Treasury Optimization

Market Risk Management Optimization: Exploring Strategies for Treasury Optimization

As businesses and organizations become increasingly global, the need for effective market risk management optimization...

Payables Planning Process and Tools

Payables Planning Process and Tools

Payables planning is a critical step in any company's working capital management and payables control. By taking the time ...

Treasury Systems Selection: A Comprehensive Overview

Treasury Systems Selection: A Comprehensive Overview

Selecting the right treasury system is a critical decision for any business. The right system can help increase...

Contingency Funding Planning: A Comprehensive Overview

Contingency Funding Planning: A Comprehensive Overview

The ability to plan for and anticipate potential risks is essential for any successful business. While most organizations ...

Counterparty Risk Assessment: A Comprehensive Guide

Counterparty Risk Assessment: A Comprehensive Guide

Counterparty risk assessment is an essential part of treasury and credit risk management. In today's ever-changing global ...

Cost Forecasting Models: Everything You Need to Know

Cost Forecasting Models: Everything You Need to Know

Cost forecasting is an important part of budgeting and financial planning. It involves predicting future costs of goods...

Revenue Forecasting Techniques: An Overview

Revenue Forecasting Techniques: An Overview

Revenue forecasting is an essential part of any business' financial planning. Accurately predicting how much money a...

Credit Risk Modeling: An Overview

Credit Risk Modeling: An Overview

Understanding credit risk is essential for any business or organization that loans money, makes investments, or purchases ...

Optimizing Your Inventory for Improved Working Capital Management

Optimizing Your Inventory for Improved Working Capital Management

In today's business climate, inventory optimization is critical to the success of any organization. It is essential for...

Analyzing Revenue Drivers

Analyzing Revenue Drivers

Businesses of all sizes need to know what drives their revenue in order to remain competitive and profitable. That's why...

Stress Testing: A Comprehensive Overview

Stress Testing: A Comprehensive Overview

Stress testing is an important part of treasury and liquidity risk management, and a comprehensive understanding of the...

Understanding Time Series Analysis

Understanding Time Series Analysis

Time series analysis is a powerful tool that can help financial professionals make better decisions about their...

Bank Account Opening Process and Procedures

Bank Account Opening Process and Procedures

Opening a bank account is an important financial step, and it's important to know the process and procedures of doing so. ...

Equity Instruments Operations Explained

Equity Instruments Operations Explained

Equity instruments operations can be complex and confusing for those unfamiliar with the process. But understanding how...

Unlocking the Power of Spend Analytics for Treasury Intelligence

Unlocking the Power of Spend Analytics for Treasury Intelligence

As businesses continue to grow and evolve, the role of treasury management has become increasingly important. Treasury...

An Overview of Credit Card Payment Processing Solutions

An Overview of Credit Card Payment Processing Solutions

In today's world, credit card payment processing solutions are essential for businesses of all sizes. Whether you're a...

ACH Payment Processing Solutions

ACH Payment Processing Solutions

Electronic payments are becoming more and more popular among businesses of all sizes. ACH Payment Processing Solutions...

Optimizing Your Cash Flow

Optimizing Your Cash Flow

Cash flow is one of the most important aspects of running a business. In order to stay competitive and maximize profits,...

Credit Risk Mitigation Strategies - A Comprehensive Overview

Credit Risk Mitigation Strategies - A Comprehensive Overview

Credit risk is one of the most critical and pervasive risks in financial markets today. As businesses expand and become...

Forecasting Techniques: An Overview

Forecasting Techniques: An Overview

Forecasting techniques have become increasingly important as businesses look to make better decisions in a rapidly...

Inventory Control Process and Tools

Inventory Control Process and Tools

Inventory control is an essential part of any successful business. Having the right inventory control process and tools...

Exploring ERP Integration Solutions for Treasury Automation Systems

Exploring ERP Integration Solutions for Treasury Automation Systems

With the ever-increasing complexity of treasury operations, businesses need to ensure that their financial systems are...

Debt and Equity Optimization: An Overview

Debt and Equity Optimization: An Overview

Optimizing debt and equity is an important part of any business's capital structure. It's a complex process that requires ...

Funding Liquidity Analysis: An In-Depth Guide

Funding Liquidity Analysis: An In-Depth Guide

Funding liquidity analysis is an important part of any company's financial plan and is a key indicator of short-term...

Neural Network Models for Financial Forecasting

Neural Network Models for Financial Forecasting

Neural networks have become increasingly popular in the financial forecasting world due to their ability to uncover...

Cash Flow Optimization Techniques and Strategies

Cash Flow Optimization Techniques and Strategies

Having a well-managed and optimized cash flow is essential for any business. It is the lifeblood of any organization, as...

Cash Flow Budgeting Explained

Cash Flow Budgeting Explained

Cash flow budgeting is an essential part of treasury analytics and cash flow analysis. It helps businesses to maximize...

Optimizing Risk and Return for Treasury and Capital Structure

Optimizing Risk and Return for Treasury and Capital Structure

As businesses grow, they need to balance risk and return while optimizing their treasury and capital structures. With the ...

Cash Flow Projections: An Overview of Liquidity Analysis and Planning

Cash Flow Projections: An Overview of Liquidity Analysis and Planning

Cash flow projections are an essential part of any business's financial planning and liquidity analysis. It is used to...

Supplier Invoice Matching Systems Explained

Supplier Invoice Matching Systems Explained

The management of supplier invoices is an integral part of running any business, from small startups to large...

Market Risk Monitoring and Reporting

Market Risk Monitoring and Reporting

Risk management is an essential part of any successful financial operation. With the volatility in markets, it is...

Cash Flow Statement Forecasting: An Introduction

Cash Flow Statement Forecasting: An Introduction

Cash flow statement forecasting is an important part of financial forecasting that can help businesses make informed...

An Introduction to Interest Rate Risk Monitoring and Reporting

An Introduction to Interest Rate Risk Monitoring and Reporting

As financial institutions look to maximize returns and stay competitive, they must be aware of the potential risks...

Market Demand Forecasting Models

Market Demand Forecasting Models

Forecasting market demand is an important process for any business, enabling them to better manage their resources and...

Cash Flow Budgeting Process and Tools

Cash Flow Budgeting Process and Tools

Cash flow budgeting is an essential part of any successful business. It involves assessing current and future cash flow,...

Cash Flow Projections and Forecasting Techniques

Cash Flow Projections and Forecasting Techniques

Cash flow projections and forecasting techniques are essential tools for business owners and financial managers to...

Accounts Receivable Management: A Comprehensive Overview

Accounts Receivable Management: A Comprehensive Overview

Managing accounts receivable is a critical component of treasury and working capital management. It's essential for...

Debt Restructuring: A Comprehensive Overview

Debt Restructuring: A Comprehensive Overview

Debt restructuring is a key element of treasury optimization and debt optimization strategies. With the global economy...

Portfolio Performance Optimization

Portfolio Performance Optimization

Investing in the stock market is a complex and often risky endeavor, but it can also be immensely rewarding. To maximize...

Liquidity Planning Process and Tools

Liquidity Planning Process and Tools

Cash flow optimization and liquidity planning are essential components of any successful business. Whether you’re a...

Cash Flow Monitoring Process and Tools

Cash Flow Monitoring Process and Tools

Cash flow is an essential part of any business. It is the lifeblood of any enterprise, and it's critical to keep track of ...

The Cost of Goods Sold Model: Explaining Financial Forecasting Tools and Techniques

The Cost of Goods Sold Model: Explaining Financial Forecasting Tools and Techniques

Financial forecasting is an important component of successful business operations, and the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)...

Understanding Asset Allocation Analysis

Understanding Asset Allocation Analysis

Asset allocation analysis is a complex and important process for any investor. It involves understanding the various...

Cash Flow Reporting Process and Tools

Cash Flow Reporting Process and Tools

Cash flow reporting is a critical component of cash management for businesses of all sizes. A well-structured and...

Optimizing Liquidity: What You Need to Know

Optimizing Liquidity: What You Need to Know

Having sufficient liquidity is essential for any business, allowing them to pay their bills and invest in new...

Value at Risk: What It Is and How It's Used

Value at Risk: What It Is and How It's Used

Value at Risk (VaR) is a risk management tool used to quantify the amount of potential losses associated with...

Treasury Workflow Automation: A Comprehensive Overview

Treasury Workflow Automation: A Comprehensive Overview

Businesses of all sizes are increasingly recognizing the need for treasury workflow automation tools to enhance their...

Payment Processing: A Comprehensive Overview

Payment Processing: A Comprehensive Overview

The process of payment processing is a critical part of any business’s treasury operations. Whether it’s processing...

Optimizing Liquidity Risk Management

Optimizing Liquidity Risk Management

Managing liquidity risk is essential for any successful business, but it can be difficult to do so without the right...

Interest Rate Risk Management Optimization

Interest Rate Risk Management Optimization

Interest rate risk management is an essential component of any financial institution's operations. As interest rates...

Exploring Exposure Limits & Hedging Tools

Exploring Exposure Limits & Hedging Tools

In today's highly competitive business world, managing exposure to risk is essential in order to remain successful....

Inventory Planning Process and Tools

Inventory Planning Process and Tools

Inventory planning is a crucial part of any business operations. It requires a careful and systematic approach to ensure...

Liquidity Management Explained

Liquidity Management Explained

For companies of all sizes, liquidity management is an essential part of ensuring financial stability and success....

Interest Rate Risk Assessment: Understanding the Basics

Interest Rate Risk Assessment: Understanding the Basics

Understanding the basics of interest rate risk assessment is essential for any business that deals with loans or...

Credit Limit Management: An Overview

Credit Limit Management: An Overview

Credit Limit Management is an important part of effective treasury risk management and credit risk management. It is...

Understanding Discounted Cash Flow and its Applications in Financial Modeling

Understanding Discounted Cash Flow and its Applications in Financial Modeling

Financial modeling is a critical tool used by businesses and investors to make decisions about investments and other...

Stress Testing: A Comprehensive Overview

Stress Testing: A Comprehensive Overview

Stress testing is a critical tool for treasury analytics and risk management. It is used to assess the performance of...

The Essential Guide to FTP Methods

The Essential Guide to FTP Methods

Are you looking for an easy-to-understand guide to FTP methods? Look no further. In this comprehensive article, you will...

Sales Forecasting Models: A Comprehensive Overview

Sales Forecasting Models: A Comprehensive Overview

Sales forecasting is a powerful tool for predicting future revenue and providing businesses with the insight to make...

Bank Account Management: A Comprehensive Overview

Bank Account Management: A Comprehensive Overview

Managing your bank account is an essential part of financial planning. Not only does it help you keep track of your...

Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) Methodology

Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) Methodology

Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) is a complex and powerful tool used by financial institutions to manage their portfolios. It ...

Treasury Automation: An Overview

Treasury Automation: An Overview

With the rapidly-evolving financial landscape, treasury automation has become an essential component for any...

Credit Risk Management: An Overview

Credit Risk Management: An Overview

Managing credit risk is an essential component of any successful business. It's the process of evaluating the potential...

Understanding Market Trends in Treasury Analytics and Market Analysis

Understanding Market Trends in Treasury Analytics and Market Analysis

As global markets become increasingly complex, the ability to accurately predict and understand market trends has become...

Vendor Payment Processing Solutions: Everything You Need to Know

Vendor Payment Processing Solutions: Everything You Need to Know

Vendor payments are an important part of any business's financial operations. From buying raw materials to paying for...

Cash Flow Budgeting and Planning Tools: An Overview

Cash Flow Budgeting and Planning Tools: An Overview

Cash flow budgeting and planning tools are essential for business success and growth. Managing cash flow is critical for...

Cash Flow Forecasting Optimization

Cash Flow Forecasting Optimization

Cash flow forecasting is an essential part of any successful business, and can be the difference between success and...

Cash Flow Budgeting: A Guide to Liquidity Analysis and Planning

Cash Flow Budgeting: A Guide to Liquidity Analysis and Planning

Cash flow budgeting is an essential step in liquidity analysis and planning. It is a process that helps businesses to...

Net Present Value: What it is and How it Works

Net Present Value: What it is and How it Works

Net Present Value (NPV) is an important concept in financial modeling, used to determine the present value of future cash ...

Payables Control Process and Tools

Payables Control Process and Tools

When it comes to managing a business's finances, there is no substitute for having a well-defined payables control...

Forecasting Models: A Comprehensive Overview

Forecasting Models: A Comprehensive Overview

Forecasting models have become increasingly essential for businesses to make informed decisions in a dynamic market. With ...

Cost Drivers Analysis - A Comprehensive Overview

Cost Drivers Analysis - A Comprehensive Overview

Cost drivers analysis is a powerful tool for understanding and predicting the financial performance of a business. By...

Optimizing Credit Risk Management

Optimizing Credit Risk Management

Every business faces the challenge of managing credit risk in order to protect their investments and maximize their...

Treasury Systems Maintenance and Support

Treasury Systems Maintenance and Support

Managing treasury systems is an increasingly complex and important task in today's business world. As the demand for...

Credit Limit and Customer Monitoring Techniques: Understanding the Basics

Credit Limit and Customer Monitoring Techniques: Understanding the Basics

Understanding the basics of credit limit and customer monitoring techniques is essential for any business looking to stay ...

Optimizing Your Portfolio: A Guide to Risk Management

Optimizing Your Portfolio: A Guide to Risk Management

Investing in a portfolio is an important part of achieving financial success. However, it is not enough to just invest in ...

The Basics of Accounts Payable Management

The Basics of Accounts Payable Management

Accounts payable management is an essential component of any successful business. It involves the process of managing the ...

Income Statement Forecasting: A Comprehensive Overview

Income Statement Forecasting: A Comprehensive Overview

Accurately forecasting income statements is an essential part of financial planning. It helps businesses plan for the...

An Overview of Fixed Income Instruments Operations

An Overview of Fixed Income Instruments Operations

The world of finance is filled with a variety of investment options, and fixed income instruments operations offer...

Optimizing Working Capital Management

Optimizing Working Capital Management

Having a well-managed working capital is essential for any business to thrive. Working capital management optimization is ...

Balance Sheet Forecasting: An Overview

Balance Sheet Forecasting: An Overview

In today's ever-changing financial landscape, balance sheet forecasting is becoming increasingly important for businesses ...

Cash flow forecasting: A Comprehensive Overview

Cash flow forecasting: A Comprehensive Overview

Cash flow forecasting is an important tool for any business, large or small, to gain insight into their financial health. ...

Asset Allocation Strategy: How to Optimize Your Treasury Investment

Asset Allocation Strategy: How to Optimize Your Treasury Investment

When it comes to investing, it's crucial to have an asset allocation strategy that is tailored to your individual needs....

Contingency Funding Plans: A Liquidity Risk Analysis

Contingency Funding Plans: A Liquidity Risk Analysis

The concept of contingency funding plans has become increasingly important in today's economic environment. In times of...

Unveiling the Power of Global Treasury Intelligence: A Professional Guide

Unveiling the Power of Global Treasury Intelligence: A Professional Guide

Unveiling the Power of Global Treasury Intelligence: A Professional GuideIn today's rapidly evolving global business...

Cash Pooling and Netting Techniques: An Overview

Cash Pooling and Netting Techniques: An Overview

Cash pooling and netting techniques are powerful cash management tools that can help businesses to optimize their cash...

Credit Risk Monitoring

Credit Risk Monitoring

As businesses become increasingly reliant on credit transactions, it is essential to have effective credit risk...

Systems Maintenance Processes Explained

Systems Maintenance Processes Explained

When it comes to running a business, it's important to have processes in place to ensure that systems are properly...

Credit Risk Monitoring and Reporting

Credit Risk Monitoring and Reporting

The ability to effectively monitor and report on credit risk is essential for any organization that deals with financial...

Optimizing Portfolio Rebalancing

Optimizing Portfolio Rebalancing

Investing in the stock market is one of the most popular ways to build wealth. Many investors, however, fail to maximize...

Performance Measurement: A Comprehensive Overview

Performance Measurement: A Comprehensive Overview

Performance measurement is an essential part of any organization's operations, as it allows organizations to assess their ...

Identifying and Assessing Interest Rate Risk

Identifying and Assessing Interest Rate Risk

Interest rate risk is a major concern for organizations in today's economic environment. With the ever-changing landscape ...

Systems Selection Criteria: A Comprehensive Overview

Systems Selection Criteria: A Comprehensive Overview

When it comes to selecting the right system for treasury operations, there are a multitude of factors to consider. From...

Systems Integration and Implementation: An Overview

Systems Integration and Implementation: An Overview

The successful implementation of systems integration and implementation in treasury management is essential to the...

Credit Rating Analysis: A Comprehensive Overview

Credit Rating Analysis: A Comprehensive Overview

The credit rating analysis process is a complex and crucial part of treasury and credit risk management. It is an...

Market Risk Mitigation Strategies

Market Risk Mitigation Strategies

The concept of market risk is one that all businesses and investors need to take seriously. Market risk can come in the...

Understanding Investment Portfolio Strategies

Understanding Investment Portfolio Strategies

When it comes to investing, there is no one-size-fits-all approach. That's why understanding the different investment...

Understanding FTP Implementation

Understanding FTP Implementation

Funds transfer pricing (FTP) is an essential tool for treasury management that helps financial institutions identify...

Understanding FTP Monitoring and Management

Understanding FTP Monitoring and Management

FTP monitoring and management is an important part of Treasury Management and Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP). Understanding ...

Price Elasticity Models: A Comprehensive Overview

Price Elasticity Models: A Comprehensive Overview

In business, predicting future pricing is essential for making informed decisions. Price elasticity models are a powerful ...

Multi-bank Payment Processing Solutions

Multi-bank Payment Processing Solutions

When it comes to processing payments, businesses need to ensure that they have the right infrastructure in place....

Currency Risk Management: A Comprehensive Overview

Currency Risk Management: A Comprehensive Overview

Currency risk management is an essential part of a company's treasury and market risk management strategy. Whether it is...

A Comprehensive Overview of Regression Analysis

A Comprehensive Overview of Regression Analysis

Regression analysis is a powerful tool for understanding and predicting trends in data. It can be used to identify...

The Definitive Guide to Receivables Planning Process and Tools

The Definitive Guide to Receivables Planning Process and Tools

Running a successful business requires a well-oiled machine. Without proper receivables planning processes and tools in...

Treasury Controls and Procedures: A Comprehensive Overview

Treasury Controls and Procedures: A Comprehensive Overview

Making sure that the treasury department of a business runs efficiently and securely is paramount. Treasury controls and...

Interest Rate Risk Mitigation Strategies

Interest Rate Risk Mitigation Strategies

Interest rate risk is one of the most important challenges faced by today's businesses. It can have a major impact on a...

An Overview of Derivative Instruments Operations

An Overview of Derivative Instruments Operations

Derivative instruments are an essential part of modern financial markets and operations. Derivatives are financial...

Volatility Analysis - An Overview

Volatility Analysis - An Overview

Volatility analysis is an important tool in market analysis, essential for making informed decisions in the ever-changing ...

Optimizing Your Cash Flow: A Comprehensive Guide

Optimizing Your Cash Flow: A Comprehensive Guide

When it comes to managing your business's finances, cash flow optimization is essential for success. Cash flow is a...

Cash Flow Forecasting: A Comprehensive Overview

Cash Flow Forecasting: A Comprehensive Overview

Cash flow forecasting is essential for businesses of all sizes and industries. It helps organizations plan for the...

Foreign Exchange Hedging Techniques: An Overview

Foreign Exchange Hedging Techniques: An Overview

Foreign Exchange Hedging Techniques are becoming increasingly important for businesses to manage their cash flow and...

Debt Collection Strategies and Tools

Debt Collection Strategies and Tools

Debt collection is a critical component of successful working capital management and accounts receivable management....

Exponential Smoothing Models: A Comprehensive Overview

Exponential Smoothing Models: A Comprehensive Overview

Time-series forecasting is an important component of financial modeling and forecasting. It involves predicting future...

FTP Benchmarking Techniques

FTP Benchmarking Techniques

Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) is an important area of treasury operations for organizations, as it helps them to identify...

Exploring Transfer Pricing Strategies for Treasury and Tax Optimization

Exploring Transfer Pricing Strategies for Treasury and Tax Optimization

As treasury and tax departments strive to optimize their operations, transfer pricing strategies have become an...

Bank Account Administration Systems and Tools

Bank Account Administration Systems and Tools

Do you want to make managing your bank accounts easier and more efficient? Bank account administration systems and tools...

ARIMA Models: A Comprehensive Overview for Financial Forecasting

ARIMA Models: A Comprehensive Overview for Financial Forecasting

Financial forecasting is an essential tool for making decisions in the business world. Accurate forecasts are the key to...

Revenue Forecasting Models - A Comprehensive Overview

Revenue Forecasting Models - A Comprehensive Overview

Revenue forecasting models are becoming increasingly important for businesses looking to understand and predict their...

Systems Integration Techniques for Treasury Operations

Systems Integration Techniques for Treasury Operations

In today's complex and ever-changing financial landscape, organizations need a comprehensive approach to managing their...

Asset Allocation Optimization: What You Need to Know

Asset Allocation Optimization: What You Need to Know

Are you looking to maximize the return on your investments? Asset allocation optimization is a key tool that can help you ...

Interest Rate Hedging Explained

Interest Rate Hedging Explained

Interest rate hedging is a powerful tool for businesses that want to protect their cash flow and investments from changes ...

Cost Forecasting Techniques: An Overview

Cost Forecasting Techniques: An Overview

Cost forecasting is an essential component of any successful business. It involves predicting the future costs of...

Tax Mitigation Strategies: A Comprehensive Overview

Tax Mitigation Strategies: A Comprehensive Overview

Tax mitigation strategies are an essential part of every business owner's financial plan. As the cost of doing business...

Inventory Control Systems and Techniques

Inventory Control Systems and Techniques

Inventory control systems and techniques are essential tools used to manage, monitor, and optimize a business's...

Optimizing Risk and Return

Optimizing Risk and Return

Risk and return optimization are essential components of any successful investment strategy. From novice investors to...

Market Risk Identification and Assessment

Market Risk Identification and Assessment

In today's uncertain economic environment, market risk identification and assessment is essential for any business that...

Risk Management Policies and Procedures

Risk Management Policies and Procedures

Risk management is an essential part of any organization's success. It involves assessing potential risks and taking...

Risk-Return Analysis: A Comprehensive Overview

Risk-Return Analysis: A Comprehensive Overview

Risk-return analysis is an essential tool for any investor or portfolio manager. It allows one to gain insights into the...

Tax Planning Strategies: A Comprehensive Overview

Tax Planning Strategies: A Comprehensive Overview

Tax planning is an essential part of financial planning for individuals and businesses alike. Having a comprehensive...

Receivables Control Process and Tools

Receivables Control Process and Tools

The receivables control process and tools are essential for businesses to effectively manage their working capital and...

Funding Liquidity Analysis: A Comprehensive Overview

Funding Liquidity Analysis: A Comprehensive Overview

Most businesses and financial institutions are now aware of the importance of adequate liquidity management. As a result, ...